Friday, April 15, 2011

Classification of Food Constituents

Food Constituents
Foods constituents are classified
1) on the basis of their chemical composition
2) on the basis of their function

Classification of Food on the basis of Function
1)Body Builders 2)Energy Producers 3)Regulators

Body Builders:
    The Food substance which involved in building up the body. Proteins, mineral salts and water are the substance which are referred to as body builders, because their are the only substance which enters in to the composition of the body.

Energy Producers:
    The Food substance which yields certain amount of enery which is necessary for the performence of various vital activities of the body.Carbohydrates and fats are the substance referred to as energy producers.

    Mineral salts and vitamins are capable of regulating and co-ordinating the different function of the body. They are called regulators or regulating substances.

Classification of Food on the basis of their chemical compositions
1) Proteins 2) carbohydrates 3) Fats 4) Mineral Salts 5) Vitamins 6) water

    Proteins are the substance which 1) functions as enzymes catalysing many chemical reaction of the cell. 2) They serves as structural components of cells. 3) They are general body builds. Proteins are formed from simpler units called amino acids. All proteins are composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and some of them in addition, contain sulphur and phosphorus.
Source:  Meat, Cheese, Egg, Milk, Beans, Peas

    Carbohydrates are the chief energy producers of our body. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in ratio 1:2:1. The play the key role in synthesis of amino acids and fatty acids.
Source: Cereals and Pulses.

    Fats and their derivatives are collectively known as lipids. They contains twice as much energy as carbohydrates. They are said to be energy rich compounds. Fats at the end of the digestion converted in to fatty acids and glycerol.. They are used as a shock absorbers and insulators of our body.
Source: Vegetable oil, Butter, Meat, etc.

Mineral Salts:
    Mineral salts serve to regulate the different metabolic activities. For the normal functioning of the body the following mineral salts are important.

1) Calcium
        Calcium along with the phosphorus helps in formation of bones and teeth, in clotting of blood, growth, contraction of muscles and excitability of nerves.
Source:  Milk, Cheese, green leafy vegetables, butter, orange and eggs.
Deficiency:  poor development of bones, Dental disorder, stunted growth, and rickets in children.

2) Phosphorus
        Phosphorus along with calcium needed for the formation of bones and teeth, muscles, blood and for the activation of many enzymes. It plays important role in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates.
Source: Milk, Egg Yolk, Meat, Fish, and Vegetables.
Deficiency: Poor development of skeleton and retardation of growth.

3) Magnesium:
        Magnesium is very essential for the conduction of nerve impuluses and for the normal maintenance of ionic balance.
Source: Nuts, Soyabeans, and sea foods
Deficiency: Nervousness, retarded growth, and irregular heart beat.

4) Potassium
        Potassium plays an important role in the acid-base balance in the cell. It is essential for synthesis of glycogen.
Source: Chick, Banana, and potatoes.
Deficiency: Nervous Disorders and poor muscular control.

5) Sodium
        Sodium is essential for regulation of osmotic pressure.
Source: Common salt, Carrot, Cauliflower, Eggs, Legumes and Radish.
Deficiency: Nervous Disorder.

6) Iron
        Iron is very important for the formation of heamoglobin and chromatine.
Source: Green Vegetables, Liver, Fish, Meet.
Deficiency: Leads to anaemia

7) Iodine
        Iodine is essential for formation of thyroxine hormone of the thyroid gland.
Source: Iodized Salts, sea foods, Drinking water.
Deficiency: simple goiter.

8) Sulphur
        Sulphur is essential for the formation of body proteins.

9) Chlorine
        Chlorine found in body as a chloride ion in combination with sodium. It is highly concentrated in the cerebro-spinal fluid. It is essential for water balance.
Source: Common Salt.

    Vitamins act as a catalyst. They are divided in to two groups based on the solubility in water and fat.
        Fat soluble vitamins - Vitamins A, D, E, and K
        Water Soluble vitamins - B Complex group and C.

Fat-Soluble Vitamins    
  Vitamin A(Retinol or anti xerophthalmic vitamin):
        It influences growth of the body. It is essential for the maintenance of normal epithelial tissues of the organs, including cornea.
Source: Fish, Liver oil, Dairy Product, Carror, Yellow Maize, and Spinach.
Deficiency: Dryness of the cornea in eyes (Xerophthalmia), Night blindness (Nyctalopia)

  Vitamin D(Calciferol or anti richitic vitamin):
        It is necessary for normal calcium and phosphorous metabolism and for healthy bone and teeth development.
Source: Milk, Fish leaver oil, Cod, Yolk of eggs. It is also manufactured in the body by the action of the ultra violet rays on sunlight on a substance in the skin called ergosterol.

Deficiency: Rickets and dental decay.
Deficiency in children : rickets, bow-legs, pigeon-chest and destroyed joints.
Deficiency in adult: Softening of bones (Osteomalacia).

  Vitamin E(Tocopherol or Anti sterility vitamin):
        It is essential for normal fertility.
Source:  Wheat, Germ oil, milk, butter, vegetable, and lettuce.

  Vitamin K(Anti heamorrhagic vitamin):
        It is necessary for production of prothrombin, the precursor of thrombin which involved in clotting of blood.
Source: Liver, green vegetables, Spinach, cauliflower and cabbage.

Water-Soluble vitamins.
  Vitamin B1(Thiamine)
        It is essential for normal growth, appetite and also for proper functioning of the nervous system. It is commonly called as anti neuritic vitamin or anti beriberi vitamin.
Source: whole grains, husk of whole grains, dry yeast, yolk of egg, and milk.
Deficiency: Beriberi in man

Vitamin B2(Riboflavin):
        It is yellow, light sensitive pigment, necessary for cellular respiration.
Source: Milk, Liver, and yeast
Deficiency: Reddening of eyes, roughness of cornea, soreness of the tongue, soreness of the corners of the lips.

Nicotinic acid(niacin or antipellagra):
        It is essential for the oxidative metabolism of the cells.
Source: Yeast, Meat, and soyabeans
Deficiency: Soreness and inflammation of tongue and mouth(Pellagra), pigmentation and thickening of the skin followed by degeneration of nervous system.

Vitamin B6(Pyridoxine):
        It plays an active role in metabolism of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates.
Source: Egg Yolk, Liver, Meat, Fish, Leguminous plants.
Deficiency: Dermatitis, anaemia, and extreme nervousness.

Vitamin B12(Cyanocobalamine):
        It is essential for the formation of red blood corpuscles.
Source: animal products like liver, kidney and eggs.
Deficiency: Pernicious anaemia

  Vitamin C(Ascorbic acid):
        It participates in intracellular metabolism and maintains the colloidal state of intracellular substances.
Source: citrus fruits, lemons, oranges, and tomatoes.
Deficiency: Bleeding gums(Scurvey), loosening and falling for teeth, and intramuscular heamorrhages.

       Water forms an essential constituent of protoplasm. It act as a medium of transport of food materials. It regulates the body temperature. It carries hormones and other secretory materials from the place where they are formed to the required place. It carries the excretory materials to the excretory organs. It takes part in the formation of urine and faeces. Hence no cell can function without water.
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